Investigation of Photo-electrode and Counter Electrode Effect on DSSCs Based on Indoline Dyes

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Organic Colorants, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu Street 56, Kaunas, LT 51373, Lithuania


Photovoltaic systems, for example, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), are one of the useful tools for producing renewable and green energy. To develop DSSCs technology, it is necessary to overcome obstacles such as the need for expensive compounds. Organic dyes system containing responsible group for using in dye-sensitized solar cells and effective anchoring group for improving interaction between dye (photosensitizers) and nanolayer were designed and prepared. A series of DSSCs were designed and manufactured based on organic dyes as photosensitizers. The π-electrons in the HOMO orbitals of the dyes are delocalized only in dyes 1 and 2. A new MoS2/GO hybrid or composite was also employed instead of platinum. The DSSCs were prepared using MoS2/GO hybrid or composite and compared with that containing platinum. Under same conditions, the DSSCs with MoS2/GO composite illustrated better efficiency than MoS2/GO hybrid. The proposed dyes used as photosensitizer in a dye solar cell structure in the presence of Na-doped TiO2 and their photovoltaic properties investigated. The highest PCE in the presence of GO/MoS2 nanocomposite as opposite electrode and TiO2 and Na-doped TiO2 is 5.14 and 5.48, respectively, and corresponds to dye 8. The improved performance of Na doped TiO2 based DSSC could be attributed to the enhancement in optical properties of the sample by decreasing the intrinsic defects.


Main Subjects

  1. Yahya M, Bouziani A, Ocak C, Seferoglu Z, Sillanpaa M. Organic/metal-organic photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC): Recent developments, new trends, and future perceptions. Dye Pigm. 2023; 192: 109227. 2021. 109227.
  2. Prakash P, Janarthanan B. Review on the progress of light harvesting natural pigments as DSSC sensitizers with high potency. Inorg Chem Commun. 2023; 152: 110638.
  3. Nasiri S, Palanisamy P, Rabiei M, Hosseinnezhad M, Palevicius A, Janusas G, Nutalapati V. Investigation of the influence of persulfurated benzene derivatives on optical and carrier mobility properties. Mater Lett. 2023; 342(1): 134323. 2023. 134323.
  4. Rouhani S, Hosseinnezhad M, Sohrab N, Gharanjig K, Salem A. Investigation of the effect of rGO/TiO2 on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs devices. Prog Color Colorant Coat. 2022; 15(2): 123-131.
  5. Karim NA, Mehmood U, Zahid HF, Asif T. Nanostructured photoanode and counter electrode materials for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sol Energy. 2019; 185: 165-188.
  6. Jung K, Lim T, Martinez-Morales AA. CuO shell as a protective layer to improve the stability of ZnO nanorods-based photoelectrode in DSSCs. Appl Surf Sci. 2020; 507: 144510. j.apsusc.2019.144510.
  7. Mahmoudi M, Alizadeh A, Roudgar-Amoli M, Shariatinia Z. Rational modification of TiO2 photoelectrodes with spinel ZnFe2O4 and Ag-doped ZnFe2O4 nanostructures highly enhanced the efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Mol Biomol Spect. 2023; 289(15): 122214.
  8. Bae JH, Jeon HJ, Cho SH, Cho Y, Lee SE, Kim T. Efficiency improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells using Cu,Co/TiO2 photoelectrodes doped by applying ultrasonic treatment. Appl Surf Sci. 2023; 621(1): 156823.
  9. Alizadeh A, Shariatinia Z. Auspicious energy conversion performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on Gd2O3-impregnated SmTiO3 perovskite/TiO2 nanocomposite photoelectrodes. Electrochim Acta. 2023; 450(10): 142280. electacta.2023.142280.
  10. Chen J, Han J, Xu D. Efficient operation of autothermal microchannel reactors for the production of hydrogen by steam methane reforming. Inter J Hydrogen Energy. 2019; 44(23): 1145-4456.
  11. Hosseinnezhad M, Nasiri S, Fathi M, Janusas G. New configuration of optical photosensitizers for dyesensitized solar cells: combination of carbazole and xantone. J Mater Sci Mater Electron. 2022; 33: 17711-17721.
  12. M, Ghahari M, Mobarhan G, Rouhani S, Fathi M. Towards low cost and green photovoltaic devices: Using natural photosensitizers and MoS2/Graphene oxide composite counter electrodes. Opt Mater. 2023; 139: 113775. 113775.
  13. Bonyad-Shakalgourabi SM, Shariatinia Z. Designing photoelectrode architecture modified with mesoporous MCM-41/CeO2 composites as specific scattering layers for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Photochem Photoiol A Chem. 2023; 443(1): 114904. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2023.114904.
  14. Gharanjig H, Gharanjig K, Farzi G, Hosseinnezhad M, Jafari SM. Novel complex coacervates based on Zedo gum, cress seed gum and gelatin for loading of natural anthocyanins. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020; 164(1): 3349-3360. 2020.08.218.
  15. Naik P, Su R, Elmorsy MR, El-shafei A, Adhikari AV. Investigation of new carbazole based metal-free dyes as active photo-sensitizers/co-sensitizers for DSSCs. Dye Pigm. 2018; 149: 177-187. /10.1016/j.dyepig.2017.09.068.
  16. Rajan AK, Cindrella L. Studies on new natural dye sensitizers from Indigofera tinctoria in dye-sensitized solar cells. Opt Mater. 2019; 88: 39-47. 10.1016/j.optmat.2018.11.016.
  17. Sugathan V, John E, Sudhakar K. Recent improvements in dye sensitized solar cells: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015; 52: 54-64.
  18. Hosseinnezhad M, Ranjbar Z. A review on flexible dye-sensitized solar cells as new sustainable energy resources. Pigment Resin Technol. 2023; 52(3): 310-320.
  19. Hosseinnezhad M. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using perovskite/DSSCs tandem design. J Electron Mater 2019; 48: 5403-5408.
  20. Mohammadian-Sarcheshmeh H, Arazi R, Mazlomi-Ardakani M. Application of bifunctional photoanode materials in DSSCs: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2020; 134: 110249. 2020.110249.
  21. Mahalingam S, Abdullah H. Electron transport study of indium oxide as photoanode in DSSCs: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016; 63: 245-255.
  22. Babas F, Mehmood U, Asghar H, Mehdi MH, Haq Khan A, Khalid H, Ul-Huda N, Fatima Z. Nanostructured photoanode materials and their deposition methods for efficient and economical third generation dye-sensitized solar cells: A comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2020;129:109919. 2020. 109919.
  23. Wali Q, Fakharuddin A, Jose R. Tin oxide as a photoanode for dye-sensitised solar cells: Current progress and future challenges. J Power Source. 2015; 293: 1039-1052. 2015.06.037.
  24. Hosseinnezhad M, Movahedi J, Nasiri S. High stability photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, characterization and optical performance. Opt Mater. 2022; 109: 110198. /j. optmat. 2020.110198
  25. Ye M, Wen X, Wang M, Locozzia J, Zhang N, Lin C, Lin Z. Recent advances in dye-sensitized solar cells: from photoanodes, sensitizers and electrolytes to counter electrodes. Materialstoday. 2015; 18: 155-162.
  26. Prajapat K, Dhonde M, Sahu K, Bhojane P, Murty VVS, Shirage PM. The evolution of organic materials for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev. 2023; 55: 100586.
  27. Yashwantrao G, Saha S. Perspective on the rational design strategies of quinoxaline derived organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Dye Pigment. 2022; 199: 110093. j.dyepig. 2022.110093.
  28. Omar A, Ali MS, Abd Rahim N. Electron transport properties analysis of titanium dioxide dye-sensitized solar cells (TiO2-DSSCs) based natural dyes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy concept: A review. Sol Energy. 2020; 207: 1088-1121.
  29. ]. Ranjbar Z, Hosseinnezhad M, Gharanjig K. Environmental science and sustainable energy: colorants and coatings. Pigment Resin Technol. 2023; 52: 301.
  30. Shalini S, Balasundaraprabhu R, Satish Kumar T, Sivakumaran K, Kannan MD. Synergistic effect of sodium and yeast in improving the efficiency of DSSC sensitized with extract from petals of Kigelia Africana. Opt Mater. 2018; 79: 210-219. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.03.040.
  31. Hosseinnezhad M, M. Ghahari, H. Shaki, J. Movahedi, Investigation of DSSCs performance: the effect of 1,8-naphthalimide dyes and Na-doped TiO2. Prog Color Colorants Coat. 2020; 13(3): 177-185.
  32. Yeoh ME, Chan K, Wong H, Low P, How Thien GS, Ng Z, Murthy HCA, Balachandran R. Hydrothermal duration effect on the self-assembled TiO2 photo-anode for DSSC application. Opt Mater. 2023; 141: 113907.
  33. Al-horaibi SA, Al-Odayni AB, Alezzy A, AlSaeedy M, Saeed W, Hasan A, El-Shishtawy RM. Development of new co-sensitizer based squaraine dyes for enhancing the performance of DSSC. J Mol Struct. 2023; 30(15): 136130. j.molstruc.2023.136130.
  34. Michelão Martins L, de Faria Vieira S, Baldacim GB, Bruna A, Bregadiolli J, Cláudio Caraschi A, Batagin-Neto L, Carlos da Silva-Filho L. Improved synthesis of tetraaryl-1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles a promising dye for organic electronic devices: An experimental and theoretical approach. Dye Pigm. 2018; 148: 81-90. 2017.08.056.
  35. Cheng H, Wu Y, Su J, Wang Z, Ghimire RP, Liang M, Sun Z, Xue S. Organic dyes containing indolodothienpyrrole unit for dye-sensitized solar cells. Dyes Pigm. 2018; 149: 16-24. 1016/j.dyepig.2017.09.053.