Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Study of 1-Aminobenzotriazole for Mild Steel in HCl Solution: Electrochemical, Surface Analysis, and Theoretical Investigations

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz, Iran

2 Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry and Structure of Novel Materials, University of Siegen, P.O. Box: 57076, Siegen, Germany Siegen, P.O. Box: 57076, Siegen, Germany


The corrosion inhibition performance of a novel corrosion inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole drug (1-ABT), was comprehensively evaluated through a range of experimental and computational techniques. The effectiveness of 1-ABT as a corrosion inhibitor was investigated using weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quantum chemical/molecular dynamics studies. Experimental findings revealed a positive relationship between the inhibition effectiveness of 1-ABT and its concentration, while displaying a negative correlation with temperature. Notably, the highest achieved inhibition efficiency of approximately 98 % was observed at a concentration of 400 ppm. The adsorption behavior of 1-ABT on the metal surface was found to conform to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer formation. The thermodynamic analysis further supported the physiochemisorption nature of the adsorption process. XPS analysis and theoretical investigations confirmed the adsorption of 1-ABT molecules onto the steel surface, with the interaction between the N atoms of 1-ABT and the vacant d-orbitals of Fe atoms playing a significant role. SEM examinations provided additional evidence, demonstrating a notable reduction in the corrosion rate in the presence of 1-ABT. These findings contribute to the understanding of the corrosion inhibition mechanisms and highlight the potential of 1-ABT as an effective inhibitor for mitigating corrosion in various applications.


Main Subjects

  1. Loganathan KT, Thimmakondu VS, Nagarajan S, Natarajan R. Corrosion inhibitive evaluation and DFT studies of 2-(Furan-2-yl)-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole on mild steel at 1.0 M HCl. J Indian Chem Soc. 2021; 98(9): 100121. 100121.
  2.  Motawea MM, Melhi S. Electrochemical and computational studies of an expired vilazodone Drug as environmentally safe corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in chloride medium. J Indian Chem Soc. 2023; 100(6): 101013. j.jics.2023.101013.
  3. Salem AM, Wahba AM, El Hossiany A, Fouda AS. Experimental and computational chemical studies on the corrosion inhibitive properties of metamizole sodium pharmaceutical drug compound for CS in hydrochloric acid solutions. J Indian Chem Soc. 2022; 99(12): 100778. 100778.
  4. Mehta RK, Gupta SK, Yadav M. Synthesized novel carbon dots as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid: Gravimetric, electrochemical and morphological studies. Diam Relat Mater. 2023; 136: 109992. 109992. 
  5. Bousba S, Allal H, Damous M, Maza S. Computational DFT analysis and molecular modeling on imidazole derivatives used as corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in acidic media. Comput Theor Chem. 2023; 1225: 114168. 2023.114168.
  6. Souza L, Pereira E, Matlakhova L, Nicolin VAF, Monteiro SN, de Azevedo ARG. ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel protection in hydrochloric acid solution: a first review. J Mater Res Technol. 2022; 22: 2186-205. j.jmrt.2022.12.066.
  7.  Mohamed MG, Mahdy A, Obaid RJ, Hegazy MA, Kuo S-W, Aly KI. Synthesis and characterization of polybenzoxazine/clay hybrid nanocomposites for UV light shielding and anti-corrosion coatings on mild steel. J Polym Res. 2021; 28: 1-15. 10.1007/s10965-021-02657-0. 
  8.  Aly KI, Mohamed MG, Younis O, Mahross MH, Abdel-Hakim M, Sayed MM. Salicylaldehyde azine-functionalized polybenzoxazine: Synthesis, characterization, and its nanocomposites as coatings for inhibiting the mild steel corrosion. Prog Org Coat. 2020;138: 105385. j.porgcoat. 2019. 105385.
  9. Mohamed MG, Kuo SW, Mahdy A, Ghayd IM, Aly KI. Bisbenzylidene cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone-functionalized polybenzoxazine nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization, and use for corrosion protection on mild steel. Mater Today Commun. 2020; 25: 101418. j.mtcomm.2020.101418.
  10. Wang Q, Peng Y, Fu S, Yang X, Sun Q, Wang X, et al. Experimental and theoretical investigations of 1, 1’-Dibenzyl-[4, 4’-bipyridine]-1, 1’-diium chloride as effective corrosion inhibitor for Q235 steel in 1 M HCl. Mater Today Commun. 2023; 35: 106169.
  11. Benhiba F, Benzekri Z, Kerroum Y, Timoudan N, Hsissou R, Guenbour A, et al. Assessment of inhibitory behavior of ethyl 5-cyano-4-(furan-2-yl)-2-methyl-6-oxo-1, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylate as a corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in molar HCl: Theoretical approaches and experimental investigation. J Indian Chem Soc. 2023; 100(2): 100916.
  12. Zhu Y, Sun Q, Wang Y, Tang J, Wang Y, Wang H. Molecular dynamic simulation and experimental investigation on the synergistic mechanism and synergistic effect of oleic acid imidazoline and l-cysteine corrosion inhibitors. Corr Sci. 2021; 185: 109414.
  13. Ziouani A, Atia S, Hamani H, Douadi T, Al-Noaimi M, Gherraf N. Molecular dynamic simulation and experimental investigation on the synergistic mechanism and synergistic effect of (1Z) N [2 (methylthio) phenyl] 2oxopropanehydrazonoyl chloride (S1) corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium1M HCl. J Indian Chem Soc. 2023; 100(1): 100832. 
  14. Njoku CN, Enendu BN, Okechukwu SJ, Igboko N, Anyikwa SO, Ikeuba AI, et al. Review on anti-corrosion properties of expired antihypertensive drugs as benign corrosion inhibitors for metallic materials in various environments. Results Eng. 2023; 18: 101183.
  15. Chen Y, Hu Y, Ding C, Ni Q, Jiang Y, Zhao J, et al. The corrosion behaviors of carbon steel under the effect of AC and imidazoline quaternary ammonium salt corrosion inhibitor. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2023; 18(6): 100143. 100143.
  16. Liu E-B, Tang H, Zhang Y-H, Li D-J, Kou B, Liu N, et al. Experiment and numerical simulation of distribution law of water-based corrosion inhibitor in natural gas gathering and transportation pipeline. Pet Sci. 2023; 20: 1857-73. j.petsci.2023.01.015. 
  17. Liao B, Ma S, Zhang S, Li X, Quan R, Wan S, et al. Fructus cannabis protein extract powder as a green and high effective corrosion inhibitor for Q235 carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution. Int J Biol Macromol. 2023; 239: 124358. 2023.124358.
  18. Li X, Chen L, Xie B, Lai C, He J, Feng J, et al. Two semi flexible nonplanar double Schiff bases as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in HCl solution: Experimental and theoretical investigations. J Environ Chem Eng. 2023; 11(3): 110077. 10.1016/j.jece.2023.110077.
  19. Anandkumar B, Krishna NG, Solomon RV, Nandakumar T, Philip J. Synergistic enhancement of corrosion protection of carbon steels using corrosion inhibitors and biocides: Molecular adsorption studies, DFT calculations and long-term corrosion performance evaluation. J Environ Chem Eng. 2023; 11(3): 109842. 109842. 
  20. Gan P, Zhang D, Gao L, Xin Z, Li X. Inhibitive effect of anionic/zwitterionic hybrid surfactants on the self-corrosion of anode for alkaline Al-air battery. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2023; 670: 131530. 
  21. Zhang A, Wang Y, Wang H. Preparation of inorganic-polymer nano-emulsion inhibitor for corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement for concrete. Alexandria Eng J. 2023; 66: 537-42.
  22. Huang L, Li H-J, Wu Y-C. Comprehensive evaluation of corrosion inhibition performance and ecotoxicological effect of cinchona IIa as a green corrosion inhibitor for pickling of Q235 steel. J Environ Manage. 2023; 335: 117531.
  23. Al-Amiery A. Gravimetric and Density Functional Theory Investigations on 4-Amioantipyrin Schiff base as an inhibitor for mild steel in HCl solution. Prog Color Colorant Coat. 2023; 16: 255-69.
  24. Al-Amiery A. Investigation of the Corrosion Inhibition Properties of 4-Cyclohexyl-3-Thiosemicarbazide on Mild Steel in 1 M HCl Solution. Prog Color Colorant Coat. 2023. 
  25. Shojaee S, Zandi MS, Rastakhiz N. The effect of Tetracycline drug as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in HCl media. J Indian Chem Soc. 2022; 99(10): 100700. 100700.
  26. Kannan MB, Rahuma M, Khakbaz H, Melchers R. Antipsychotic drug waste: A potential corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in the oil and gas industry. Waste Manag. 2022; 145: 38-47. 10.1016/j.wasman.2022.04.029. 
  27. Zakaria K, Abbas MA, Bedair MA. Herbal expired drug bearing glycosides and polysaccharides moieties as green and cost-effective oilfield corrosion inhibitor: Electrochemical and computational studies. J Mol Liq. 2022; 352: 118689.
  28. Gece G. Drugs: A review of promising novel corrosion inhibitors. Corr Sci. 2011; 53(12): 3873-98. 
  29. Raja PB, Ismail M, Ghoreishiamiri S, Mirza J, Ismail MC, Kakooei S, et al. Reviews on corrosion inhibitors: a short view. Chem Eng Commun. 2016; 203(9): 1145-56. 2016.1172485.
  30. Fayomi OSI, Akande IG, Nsikak U. An overview of corrosion inhibition using green and drug inhibitors. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing; 2019. p. 22022. 10.1088/1742-6596/1378/2/022022.
  31. Campbell CD, Rees CW. Reactive intermediates. Part I. Synthesis and oxidation of 1-and 2-aminobenzotriazole. J Chem Soc C Org. 1969; (5): 742-7.
  32. Pour-Ali S, Kiani-Rashid A, Babakhani A. Improved corrosion inhibition of 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole on mild steel electrode in HCl solution using surface nanocrystallization. Int J Mater Res. 2016; 107(11): 1031-40.
  33. Pour-Ali S, Hejazi S. Tiazofurin drug as a new and non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in HCl solution: Experimental and quantum chemical investigations. J Mol Liq. 2022; 354: 118886.
  34. McCafferty E. Introduction to corrosion science. Springer Science & Business Media; 2010. 
  35. Fouda AS, Ismail MA, Al-Khamri AA, Abousalem AS. Experimental, quantum chemical and molecular simulation studies on the action of arylthiophene derivatives as acid corrosion inhibitors. J Mol Liq. 2019; 290: 111178.
  36. Iroha NB, Madueke NA, Mkpenie V, Ogunyemi BT, Nnanna LA, Singh S, et al. Experimental, adsorption, quantum chemical and molecular dynamics simulation studies on the corrosion inhibition performance of Vincamine on J55 steel in acidic medium. J Mol Struct. 2021; 1227: 129533. 
  37. Kaya S, Guo L, Kaya C, Tüzün B, Obot IB, Touir R, et al. Quantum chemical and molecular dynamic simulation studies for the prediction of inhibition efficiencies of some piperidine derivatives on the corrosion of iron. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2016; 65: 522-9. . 
  38. Yuan X, Luo K, Zhang K, He J, Zhao Y, Yu D. Combinatorial vibration-mode assignment for the FTIR spectrum of crystalline melamine: A strategic approach toward theoretical IR vibrational calculations of triazine-based compounds. J Phys Chem A. 2016; 120(38): 7427-33. 
  39. Wang Z, Lv P, Hu Y, Hu K. Thermal degradation study of intumescent flame retardants by TG and FTIR: Melamine phosphate and its mixture with pentaerythritol. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2009; 86(1): 207-14. 
  40. Zeng Y, Kang L, Wu Y, Wan S, Liao B, Li N, et al. Melamine modified carbon dots as high effective corrosion inhibitor for Q235 carbon steel in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. J Mol Liq. 2022; 349: 118108.
  41. Zhu H, Li X, Lu X, Wang J, Hu Z, Ma X. Efficiency of Gemini surfactant containing semi-rigid spacer as microbial corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in simulated seawater. Bioelectrochem. 2021; 140: 107809.
  42. Finšgar M, Jackson J. Application of corrosion inhibitors for steels in acidic media for the oil and gas industry: A review. Corr Sci. 2014; 86: 17-41.
  43. Ganjoo R, Sharma S, Thakur A, Assad H, Sharma PK, Dagdag O, et al. Experimental and theoretical study of sodium cocoyl glycinate as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium. J Mol Liq. 2022; 364: 119988. j.molliq.2022.119988.
  44. Kosari A, Momeni M, Parvizi R, Zakeri M, Moayed MH, Davoodi A, et al. Theoretical and electrochemical assessment of inhibitive behavior of some thiophenol derivatives on mild steel in HCl. Corr Sci. 2011; 53(10): 3058-67. j.corsci.2011.05.009.
  45. Aljourani J, Raeissi K, Golozar MA. Benzimidazole and its derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution. Corr Sci. 2009; 51(8): 1836-43.
  46. Saranya J, Sowmiya M, Sounthari P, Parameswari K, Chitra S, Senthilkumar K. N-heterocycles as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acid medium. J Mol Liq. 2016; 216:42-52. 2015.12.096.
  47. Bahron H, Ghani AA, Embong Z, Alharthi AI, Harun MK, Alias Y. Adsorption, electrochemistry, DFT and inhibitive effect of imines derived from tribulin on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl. J Mol Struct. 2021; 1235: 130206. j.molstruc. 2021.130206.
  48. Verma C, Rhee KY, Quraishi MA, Ebenso EE. Pyridine based N-heterocyclic compounds as aqueous phase corrosion inhibitors: A review. J Taiwan Inst Chem. Eng. 2020; 117: 265-77. 10.1016/j.jtice.2020.12.011. 
  49. Singh P, Srivastava V, Quraishi MA. Novel quinoline derivatives as green corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium: electrochemical, SEM, AFM, and XPS studies. J Mol Liq. 2016; 216: 164-73.
  50. Zhang W, Li H-J, Wang M, Wang L-J, Pan Q, Ji X, et al. Tetrahydroacridines as corrosion inhibitor for X80 steel corrosion in simulated acidic oilfield water. J Mol Liq. 2019; 293: 111478. 10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111478.
  51. Vengatesh G, Karthik G, Sundaravadivelu M. A comprehensive study of ondansetron hydrochloride drug as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl medium. Egypt J Pet. 2017; 26(3): 705-19.