Cleaner Production of Dyed and Functional Polyester Using Natural Dyes vis-a-vis Exploration of Secondary Shades

Document Type : Original Article


Deptartment of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India


atural dyes are known for their added benefits over synthetic dyes in terms of health and ecology. They are considered to present a limited range of shades, which limits their use in high-end value-added products. Thus, to explore natural dyes on large scales, it is essential to generate a wide range of shades like synthetic dyes. Therefore, it is important to explore the secondary shades of natural dyes especially those which can act as primary colors in the recipe (red, yellow and blue). In the present work, three natural dyes, namely indigo, pomegranate peels and kumkum were used to dye the polyester fabric. Along with color strength at different dye concentrations, functional properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and UV protection were also evaluated. The dyed polyester showed good color values (K/S>1.7) and also displayed satisfactory color fastness to light, washing and rubbing. The polyester fabric dyed with pomegranate and kumkum in self-shades displayed a variety of functional properties including a bacterial reduction of more than 90%, radical scavenging activity of greater than 90% and also displayed excellent UPF values (UPF > 270). Indigo-dyed samples displayed antibacterial activity and UV-protection; however, their antioxidant activity was poor. The secondary shades of these dyes were produced on polyester fabric.


  1.             F. Rehman, N. Sanbhal, T. Naveed, A. Farooq, Y. Wang, W. Wei, Antibacterial performance of tencel fabric dyed with pomegranate peel extracted via ultrasonic method, Cellulose. 25(2018), 4251–4260.
  2. B. Patel, P. Kanade, Sustainable dyeing and printing with natural colours vis-à-vis preparation of hygienic viscose rayon fabric, Sustain. Mater. Technol. 22(2019), e00116.
  3. Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, R. C. Tang, J. Zhang, Simultaneous dyeing and functionalization of silk with three natural yellow dyes, Ind. Crops Prod. 64(2015), 224–232.
  4. X. Hou, F. Fang, X. Guo, J. Wizi, B. Ma, Y. Tao, Y. Yang, Potential of sorghum husk extracts as a natural functional dye for wool fabrics, ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5(2017), 4589–4597.
  5. M. Shabbir, L. J. Rather, F. Mohammad, Economically viable UV-protective and antioxidant finishing of wool fabric dyed with Tagetes erecta flower extract: Valorization of marigold, Ind. Crops Prod. 119(2018), 277–282.
  6. J. Sheikh, N. Singh, D. Pinjari, Sustainable functional coloration of linen fabric using kigelia africana flower colorant, J. Nat. Fibers. (2019), 1–10.
  7. J. Sheikh, N. Singh, M. Srivastava, Functional dyeing of cellulose-based (Linen) fabric using bombax ceiba (Kapok) flower extract, Fibers Polym. 20(2019), 312–319.
  8. J. Sheikh, A. Agrawal, H. Garg, A. Agarwal, P. Mathur, Functionalization of wool fabric using pineapple peel extract (PPE) as a natural dye, AATCC J. Res. 6(2019), 16–20.
  9. A. Sharma, S. Kadam, P. Mathur, Shahid-ul-Islam, J. Sheikh, Re-using henna natural dyeing wastewater for coloration and multifunctional finishing of linen fabric, Sustain. Chem. Pharm. 11(2019), 17–22.
  10.                 M. Hosseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig, R. Jafari, H. Imani, Green dyeing of woolen yarns with weld and Madder natural dyes in the presences of biomordant, Prog. Color Colorant Coat. 14(2021), 35–45.
  11. J. G. Choi, O. H. Kang, Y. S. Lee, H. S. Chae, Y. C. Oh, O. O. Brice, M. S. Kim, D. H. Sohn, H. S. Kim, H. Park, D. W. Shin, J. R. Rho, D. Y. Kwon, In vitro and in nivo antibacterial activity of punica granatum peel ethanol extract against salmonella., Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011(2011), 690518.
  12. R. P. Singh, K. N. Chidambara Murthy, G. K. Jayaprakasha, Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models, J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(2002), 81–86.
  13. E. P. Lansky, R. A. Newman, Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer, J. Ethnopharmacol. 109(2007), 177–206.
  14. L. C. Braga, J. W. Shupp, C. Cummings, M. Jett, J. A. Takahashi, L.S. Carmo, E. Chartone-Souza, A.M.A. Nascimento, Pomegranate extract inhibits staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent enterotoxin production, J. Ethnopharmacol. 96(2005), 335–339.
  15. D. Heber, N. P. Seeram, H. Wyatt, S. M. Henning, Y. Zhang, L. G. Ogden, M. Dreher, J. O. Hill, Safety and antioxidant activity of a pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol dietary supplement in overweight individuals with increased waist size, J. Agric. Food Chem. 55(2007), 10050–10054.
  16. M. Gangwar, R. K. Goel, G. Nath, Mallotus philippinensis muell. arg (euphorbiaceae): ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry review., Biomed Res. Int. 2014(2014), 213973.
  17. V. P. Kumar, N. S. Chauhan, H. Padh, M. Rajani, Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants, J. Ethnopharmacol. 107(2006), 182–188.
  18. A. A. Mostafa, A. A. Al-Askar, K. S. Almaary, T. M. Dawoud, E. N. Sholkamy, M. M. Bakri, Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases, Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 25(2018), 361–366.
  19. W. O. Oduro, F. Addo-Yobo, Enhancing the value of indigo-blue dyes from lonchocarpus cyanescens leaves, Inter. J. Appl. Sci. Technol. 3(2013), 78-86.
  20. S. Wahyuningsih, A. H. Ramelan, D. K. Wardani, F. N. Aini, P. L. Sari, B. P. N. Tamtama, Y. R. Kristiawan, Indigo dye derived from indigofera tinctoria as natural food colorant, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 193(2017), 012048.
  21. A. Sen, A. Bhowal, S. Datta, Comparison of dyeing of polyester fibers with natural dye and bio-Mordant, Prog. Color Colorant Coat. 11(2018), 165–172.
  22. K. Elnagar, T. Abou Elmaaty, S. Raouf, Dyeing of polyester and polyamide synthetic fabrics with natural dyes using ecofriendly technique, J. Text. 2014(2014), 1–8.
  23. M. A. Rahman Bhuiyan, A. Ali, A. Islam, M. A. Hannan, S. M. Fijul Kabir, M. N. Islam, Coloration of polyester fiber with natural dye henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) without using mordant: a new approach towards a cleaner production, Fash. Text. 5(2018), 2-11.
  24. R.A. Arain, F. Ahmad, Z. khatri, M.H. Peerzada, Microwave assisted henna organic dyeing of polyester fabric: a green, economical and energy proficient substitute, Nat. Prod. Res. (2019), 1–4.
  25. M. T. Abate, A. Ferri, J. Guan, G. Chen, V. Nierstrasz, Colouration and bio-activation of polyester fabric with curcumin in supercritical CO2: Part I - Investigating colouration properties, J. Supercrit. Fluids. 152(2019), 104548.
  26. S. Shahidi, M. Ghoranneviss, J. Wiener, Improving synthetic and natural dyeability of polyester fabrics by dielectric barrier discharge, J. Plast. Film Sheeting. 31(2015), 286–308.
  27. M. H. Zohdy, Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73(2005), 101–110.
  28. A. Haji, Dyeing of cotton fabric with natural dyes improved by mordants and plasma treatment, Prog. Color Colorant Coat. 12(2019), 191–201.
  29. M. Sadeghi-Kiakhani, S. Safapour, Y. Golpazir-Sorkheh, Impact of chitosan-poly(amidoamine) dendreimer hybrid treatment on dyeing and color fastness properties of wool yarn with madder natural dye, Prog. Color Colorant Coat. 12(2019), 241–250.
  30. A. Kerkeni, D. Gupta, A. Perwuelz, N. Behary, Chemical grafting of curcumin at polyethylene terephthalate woven fabric surface using a prior surface activation with ultraviolet excimer lamp, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(2011), 1583–1590.
  31. S. Adeel, S. Shahid, S. G. Khan, F. Rehman, M. Muneer, M. Zuber, N. Akhtar, Eco-Friendly disperse dyeing of ultraviolet-treated polyester fabric using disperse yellow 211, Polish J. Environ. Stud. 27(2018), 1935–1939.
  32. S. Adeel, T. Gulzar, M. Azeem, Fazal-ur-Rehman, M. Saeed, I. Hanif, N. Iqbal, Appraisal of marigold flower based lutein as natural colourant for textile dyeing under the influence of gamma radiations, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 130(2017), 35–39.
  33. E. Yi, J.Y. Cho, Color analysis of natural colorant-dyed fabrics, Color Res. Appl. 33(2008), 148–157.
  34. ISO Technical Manual, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
  35. AS/NZS, AS/NZS 4399, Sun protective clothing - Evaluation and classification, (1996).
  36. AATCC Technical Manual, Res. Triangle Park. NC, USA. (2007).
  37. U.S. Sharma, A. Kumar, In vitro antioxidant activity of Rubus ellipticus fruits, J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res. 2(2011), 47–50.
  38. S. Naz, R. Siddiqi, S. Ahmad, S.A. Rasool, S.A. Sayeed, Antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from punica granatum, J. Food Sci. 72(2007), M341–M345.