Decolorization of Malachite Green Dye Solution by Bacterial Biodegradation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Organic Colorants, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Malachite green dye is widely used in food and textile industries for various purposes and also used as biocide in the aquaculture industry to control fungal attacks and protozoan infections. Surface and ground water is contaminated by dyes due to discharge of untreated wastewater from industries. The presence of malachite green in water causes serious health effects such as mutagenesis, respiratory toxicity and carcinogenesis. Therefore, removal of malachite green from water by using various techniques is an essential concern for living beings as well as environment. In this study, the ability of isolated bacteria (from oil contaminated soil) for biodegradation of MG dye was investigated. The bacterium was able to grow in temperature range of 25 to 45°C and pH range of 5 to 9. Optimum temperature and pH for bacterial growth were determined as 37 °C and 7, respectively. Effect of temperature, initial concentration of dye and shaking condition on decolorization of dye solution was also tested. 20 ppm MG dye was efficiently degraded by bacteria in less than 2 h, and biodegradation of MB dye followed first-order kinetics model. These properties make the bacteria suitable for industrial wastewater treatment.


  1. Bhatnagar, M. Sillanpää, Applications of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater - A short review. Adv. Colloid. interface, 152(2009), 26–38.
  2. B.H. Hameed, T.W. Lee, Degradation of MB in aqueous solution by Fenton process, J. Hazard. Mater., 164(2009), 468–472.
  3. G. McKay, M.S. Otterburn, A.G. Sweeney, The removal of color from effluent using various adsorbents. Silica: Rate processes, Water Res. 14(1980), 15–20.
  4. Y. Wong, J. Yu, Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes, Water Res. 33(1999), 3512–3520.
  5. S. S. Azhar, A.G. Liew, D. Suhardy, K.F. Hafiz, M.D.I. Hatim, Dye removal from aqueous solution by using adsorption on treated sugarcane bagasse,  Res. J. Appl. Sci. 2(2005), 1499-11.
  6. V.K. Garg, R. Gupta, A.B. Yadav, R. Kumar, Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. Bioresour. Technol., 89(2003), 121.
  7. A. S. Sartape, A. M. Mandhare, V. V. Jadhav, P. D. Raut, M. A. Anuse, S. S. Kolekar, Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution with adsorption technique using Limonia acidissima (wood apple) shell as low cost adsorbent, Arab. J. Chem. 10(2017), 3229–3238
  8. K. V. Rao, Inhibition of DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures by MB: a new liver tumor promoter. Toxicol. Lett., 81(1995), 107–113.
  9. Z. Bekci, C. Özveri, Y. Seki, K. Yurdakoç, Sorption of MB on chitosan bead, J. Hazard. Mater., 154(2008), 254–261.
  10. R. Ahmad, R. Kumar, Adsorption studies of hazardous MB onto treated ginger waste, J. Environ. Manage., 91(2010) 1032–1038.
  11. A.A. El-Zahhar, N.S. Awwad, Removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions using organically modified hydroxyapatite. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 4(2016), 633–638.
  12. Y.Y. Ling, F.B.M. Suah, Extraction of MB from wastewater by using polymer inclusion membrane, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 5(2017), 785– 794.
  13. A.K. Srivastav, D. Roy Effects of malachite green (Triarylmethane dye) and Pyceze (Bronopol) on the hematological parameters of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), Int. j. fish. aquat. stud., 2(2015), 119–122.
  14. S. J. Culp, F.A. Beland, R. H. Heflich "Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in relation to DNA adduct formation in rats fed leucomalachite green", Mutat. Res., 507(2002), 55–63.
  15. M.E. Yonar, S.M. Yonar, Changes in selected immunological parameters and antioxidant status of rainbow trout exposed to malachite green (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum. 1792), Pestic. Biochem. Phys., 97(1) (2010), p. 19.
  16. S. Z. El. El. Ashtoukhy, Loofa egyptiaca as a novel adsorbent for removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution, J. Environ. Manage., 90(2009), p. 2755.
  17. A. S. Nohi, M. Emtiyazjo, N. Urdozade, Reactive black 5 dye decolorization by Native strains isolated from wastewater of textile factories in Tehran, Environ. Sci. Technol., 10(2006), 19– 27.
  18. D. C. Kalyani, A. A. Telke, R. S. Dhanve, J. P. Jadhave, Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textille dye by newly isolated Psedomonas SP. SUK1, J. Hazard. Mater., 163(2009), 735– 742.
  19. A. S. Kasmaei, M. K. Rofouei, M. E. Olya, S. Ahmed, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on the Reactivity of Hydroxyl Radicals in Wastewater Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Processes, Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 13(2020), 1-10.
  20. M.S. Khazravi, M. Bahmaei, M. E. Olya, M. Etezad, Application of a New Self-Cleaning Filter for Colored Wastewaters Treatment Using Laccase Enzyme Immobilized on Activated CARBON powder and fiber, Prog. Color Colorants Coat., 12(2019), 39-56.
  21. K. Seifpanahi-Shabani, A. Eyvazkhani, P. Heidari, Bioremediation of Textile Dyes Wastewater: Potential of Bacterial Isolates from a Mining Soils and Wetlands, 12(2019), 155-161.
  22. A. Bafana, S. S. Devi, K. Krishnamurthi, T.Chakarabarti, kinetics of decolourisation and biotransformation of direct Black 38 by C. hominis and P. stutzeri.                 J. Microbiol. Biotechn., 74(2007), 1145– 52.
  23. G. Ozdemir, B. Pazarbasi, A. Kocyigit, E. E. Omeroglu, I. Yasa, I. Laraboz, Decolorization of Acid Black 210 by Vibirio Havyi TEMS1, anewly isolated bioluminescent bacterium from Izmir Bay, Turkey, J, Microbiol. Biotechn., 24(2008), 1375– 81.
  24. N. A. Ikramullah, G. h. Lutfullah, A. Hameed, S. Ahmed, Decolorization of Acid Red 151 by Aspergillus niger SA1 under different physicoche mical condition, J. Microbiol. Biotechn., 24(2008), 1099.
  25. P. Sari and Kh. Simarani, Decolorization of selected azo dye by Lysinibacillus fusiformis W1B6: Biodegradation optimization, isotherm, and kinetic study biosorption mechanism, 37(2019) 492–508.
  26. M.Z. Khan, S. Singh, S. Sultana, Studies on the biodegradation of two different azo dyes in bioelectrochemical systems, New J. Chem. 39(2015), 5597.
  27. P.D. Shah, S.R. Dave, M.S. Rao, Enzymatic degradation of textile dye Reactive Orange 13 by newly isolated bacterial strain Alcaligenes faecalis PMS-1. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 69(2012), 41–50.
  28. T.  Chiong, S.Y. Lau, Z.H. Lek, B.Y. Koh, M.K. Danquah, Enzymatic treatment of methyl orange dye in synthetic wastewater by plantbased peroxidase enzymes, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 4(2016), 2500–9.
  29. S.V. Mohan, K.K. Prasad, Rao NC, Sarma PN. Acid azo dye degradation by free and immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed process, Chemosphere, 58(2005),1097–1105.
  30. A.H. Alneyadi, S.S. Ashraf, Differential enzymatic degradation of thiazole pollutants by two different peroxidases-A comparative study, Chem. Eng. J., 303(2016), 529–38.
  31. J. Zhang, Y. Li, C. Zhang, Y. Jing, Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution onto carbon prepared from Arundo donax root. J. Hazard. Mater., 50(2008), 774.
  32. B.H. Hameed, M.I. El-Khaiary, Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibriumisotherms and kinetic studies. J. Hazard. Mater., 154(2008), 237.
  33. L. Papinutti, N. Mouso, F. Forchiassin, Removal and degradation of the fungicide dye malachite green from aqueous solution using the system wheat bran–fomes sclerodermeus, Enzyme Microb. Tech., 39(2006), 848.
  34. Y.Y. Yang, L.N. Du, G. Wang, The decolorisation capacity and mechanism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 for Methyl Orange and Acid Yellow 199 under microaerophilic conditions, Water Sci. Technol. 63(2011), 956–963.
  35. M.P. Shah, K.A. Patel and A.M. Darji, Microbial degradation and decolorization of methyl orange dye by an application of Pseudomonas sp. ETL-1982, Int. J. Environ. Bioremediat. Biodegrad., 1(2013), 26–36.
  36. L. Du, M. Zhao, G. Li, F. Xu, W. Chen, Y. Zhao, Biodegradation of malachite green by Micrococcus sp. strain BD15: Biodegradation pathway and enzyme analysis, Int. J. Environ. Bioremediat. Biodegrad., 78(2013), 108 - 116.
  37. W. Ch. Wanyonyi, J. M. Onyari, P. M. Shiundu, F. J. Mula, Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis, Energy Procedia, 119(2017), 38–51.
  38. F. A. Kabeer, N. John, M. H. Abdulla, Biodegradation of malachite green by a newly isolated Bacillus vietnamensis sp. MSB17 from continental slope of the Eastern Arabian Sea: Enzyme analysis, degradation pathway and toxicity studies, Bioremediat. J., (2019), 1-10.
  39. L. Du, S. Wang, G. Li, B. Wang, X. Jia, Y, Zhao, Y. Chen, Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity, Ecotoxicology, 20(2011), 438–446.
  40. S. S. Gomare1, G. K. Parshetti, S. P. Govindwar, Biodegradation of Malachite Green by Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298, Water Environ. Res., 81(2009), 2329- 2336.
  41. Mnif, R. Fendri, D. Ghribi, Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition, Water Sci. Technol., 72 (2015), 1283 -1293.
  42. V. Chaturvedi, P. Verma, Biodegradation of malachite green by a novel copper‑tolerant Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 isolated from copper mine waste water, Chaturvedi and Verma, Bioresour., 2:42(2015), 1 -9.
  43. C.Yang, W.Chao, C.Hsieh, B. Chang, Biodegradation of Malachite Green in Milkfish Pond Sediments, Sustainability, 11(2019), 1-16.